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Pilates for the
Hypermobile Population

a one-day workshop
with Jennifer Milner, NPCP
and Dr. Linda Bluestein



Bendy Bodies Podcast with the Hypermobility MD

Specific episodes mentioned:

Links to the two-part paper Dr. Bluestein

referenced in her discussion. It's no longer

available open-sourced but she is graciously

providing copies here for us to see! Please

do not share widely with others.

Hypermobility Screening Tool mentioned by Dr. Bluestein, and also discussed in a referenced podcast

2017 hEDS diagnostic criteria in the process of being updated, but what is currently available.

Parasetter (I do not have an affiliate link with them

and make no money on this product!)






Dr. Bluestein's references:

  1. Bovet C, Carlson M, Taylor M. 2016. Quality of life, unmet needs, and iatrogenic injuries in rehabilitation of patients with Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome hypermobility type/Joint Hypermobility Syndrome.  Am J Med Genet Part A 170A:2044–2051.

  2. Bluestein, LS. Pain Management in Hypermobility Disorders‚ Frequently Missed Causes of Chronic Pain, Topics in Pain Management. Volume 32, No. 12. July 2017. Pages 1-11.

  3. Callahan, A., Squires, A., & Greenspan, S. (2022). Management of Hypermobility in Aesthetic Performing Artists: A Review. Orthopaedic Physical Therapy Practice, 34(3), 134–145

  4. Contemporary approach to joint hypermobility and related disorders. Castori, M, Hakim, A. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2017 Dec 29(6):640-9.

  5. Daylor, Victoria BFA; Gensemer, Cortney PhD; Norris, Russell A. PhD; Bluestein, Linda MD. Hope for Hypermobility: Part 1—An Integrative Approach to Treating Symptomatic Joint Hypermobility. Topics in Pain Management 38(8):p 1-9, March 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/01.TPM.0000924780.91929.b3

  6. Daylor, Victoria BFA; Gensemer, Cortney PhD; Norris, Russell A. PhD; Bluestein, Linda MD. Hope for Hypermobility: Part 2—An Integrative Approach to Treating Symptomatic Joint Hypermobility. Topics in Pain Management 38(9):p 1-10, April 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/01.TPM.0000933968.28098.59

  7. Demmler JC, Atkinson MD, Reinhold EJ, Choy E, Lyons RA, Brophy ST. Diagnosed prevalence of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and hypermobility spectrum disorder in Wales, UK: a national electronic cohort study and case-control comparison. BMJ Open. 2019 Nov 4;9(11):e031365. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031365. PMID: 31685485; PMCID: PMC6858200.

doi: 10.1097/RHU.0000000000001864

   8. Gensemer C, Burks R, Kautz S, Judge DP, Lavallee M, Norris RA. Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndromes: Complex phenotypes, challenging diagnoses, and poorly understood causes. Dev Dyn. 2021 Mar;250(3):318-344. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.220. Epub 2020 Aug 17. PMID: 32629534; PMCID: PMC7785693

   9. Hakim AJ, Cherkas LF, Grahame R, et al. The genetic epidemiology of joint hypermobility: a population study offemale twins. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:2640‚2644.

  10. Halverson CME, Penwell HL, Francomano CA. Clinician-associated traumatization from difficult medical encounters: Results from a qualitative interview study on the Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes. SSM Qual Res Health. 2023 Jun;3:100237. doi: 10.1016/j.ssmqr.2023.100237. Epub 2023 Feb 9. PMID: 37426705; PMCID: PMC10328215.

  11. Halverson CME, Clayton EW, Garcia Sierra A, Francomano C. Patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome on the diagnostic odyssey: Rethinking complexity and difficulty as a hero's journey. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2021 Dec;187(4):416-424. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31935. Epub 2021 Sep 15. PMID: 34524722.

  12. Hamonet C., et al. ‚ÄúEhlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) - Contribution to Clinical Diagnosis - A Prospective Study of 853 Patients‚Äù. EC Neurology 10.6 (2018).

  13. Malfait F, Hakim AJ, De Paepe A, et al. The genetic basis of the joint hypermobility syndromes. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006;45:502‚Äì507.

  14. Malfait F, Castori M, Francomano CA, Giunta C, Kosho T, Byers PH. The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2020 Jul 30;6(1):64. doi: 10.1038/s41572-020-0194-9. PMID: 32732924.

  15. Silvia Morlino, Marco Castori, Placing joint hypermobility in context: traits, disorders and syndromes, British Medical Bulletin, Volume 147, Issue 1, September 2023, Pages 90–107,

  16. Mark C. Scheper, Janneke E. de Vries, Rien de Vos, Jeanine Verbunt, Frans Nollet, Raoul H. H. Engelbert; Generalized joint hypermobility in professional dancers: a sign of talent or vulnerability?, Rheumatology, Volume 52, Issue 4, 1 April 2013, Pages 651‚Äì658

  17. Nicholson, Leslie L. PhD‚àó; Simmonds, Jane PhD‚Ć; Pacey, Verity PhD‚Ä°; De Wandele, Inge PhD¬ß; Rombaut, Lies PhD¬ß; Williams, Cylie M. PhD‚à•; Chan, Cliffton PhD‚àó,‚Ä°. International Perspectives on Joint Hypermobility: A Synthesis of Current Science to Guide Clinical and Research Directions. JCR: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: September 2022 - Volume 28 - Issue 6 - p 314-320

  18. Rombaut L, Malfait F, De Wandele I, et al. Muscle mass, muscle strength, functional performance, and physi- cal impairment in women with the hypermobility type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012;64(10):1584-1592. doi:10.1002/ acr.21726

  19. Remvig L, Jensen DV, Ward RC. Epidemiology of general joint hypermobility and basis for the proposed criteria for benign joint hypermobility syndrome: review of the literature. J Rheumatol 2007;34:804–9.

  20. Song B, Yeh P, Harrell J. Systemic manifestations of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2020 Aug 26;34(1):49-53. doi: 10.1080/08998280.2020.1805714. PMID: 33456144; PMCID: PMC7785142.

Pilates in the medical literature 

  1. Hyun AH, Cho JY, Koo JH. Effect of Home-Based Tele-Pilates Intervention on Pregnant Women: A Pilot Study. Healthcare (Basel). 2022 Jan 8;10(1):125. doi: 10.3390/healthcare10010125. PMID: 35052289; PMCID: PMC8775456.

  2. Panhan AC, Gonçalves M, Eltz GD, Villalba MM, Cardozo AC, Bérzin F. Neuromuscular efficiency of the multifidus muscle in pilates practitioners and non-practitioners. Complement Ther Med. 2018 Oct;40:61-63. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2018.07.014. Epub 2018 Jul 29. PMID: 30219470.

  3. Panhan AC, Gonçalves M, Eltz GD, Villalba MM, Cardozo AC, Bérzin F. Effect of Pilates Mat Exercises on Neuromuscular Efficiency of the Multifidus and Internal Oblique Muscles in a Healthy Ballerina. J Dance Med Sci. 2019 Jun 15;23(2):80-83. doi: 10.12678/1089-313X.23.2.80. PMID: 31122317.

  4. Jiang Q, Kim Y, Choi M. Kinetic Effects of 6 Weeks' Pilates or Balance Training in College Soccer Players with Chronic Ankle Instability. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Oct 8;19(19):12903. doi: 10.3390/ijerph191912903. PMID: 36232203; PMCID: PMC9566560.

  5. Lugo-Larcheveque N, Pescatello LS, Dugdale TW, Veltri DM, Roberts WO. Management of lower extremity malalignment during running with neuromuscular retraining of the proximal stabilizers. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2006 May;5(3):137-40. doi: 10.1097/01.csmr.0000306303.87825.e0. PMID: 16640949.

  6. Karaman A, Yuksel I, Kinikli GI, Caglar O. Do Pilates-based exercises following total knee arthroplasty improve postural control and quality of life? Physiother Theory Pract. 2017 Apr;33(4):289-295. doi: 10.1080/09593985.2017.1289578. Epub 2017 Mar 1. PMID: 28443790.

  7. Wells C,Kolt GS,Marshall P, Hill B, Bialocerkowski A.The effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e100402 

  8. Lin HT, Hung WC, Hung JL,Wu PS, Liaw LJ, Chang JH. Effects of Pilates on patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a systematic review. J Phys Ther Sci. 2016;28(10):2961–2969. 



Upcoming events:



I'm offering an online version of my   

popular one-day workshop on training   

hypermobile dancers! Workshop will be   

in early fall. Be sure you're subscribed   

to my mailing list so you can keep up   

with the details!   







     Dr. Bluestein and I will be in Arizona for three

     days with The Dance Mix. We'll be teaching

     classes, offering workshops for teachers

     AND parents, and making ourselves

     available to answer questions. Be sure

     to stop by and say "hi" if you're there!





Stay in Touch!

@jennifer.milner on Instagram


Dr. Linda Bluestein:

Hypermobility MD website

Bendy Bodies podcast website

@hypermobilityMD on Instagram

@bendybodies on Instagram

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